Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar. Diabetes can be divided into type 1 and type 2, type 1 diabetes incidence age is mostly under 30 years of age, sudden onset, oral medicine alone is ineffective, need to use insulin treatment; Long-term diabetes can easily lead to chronic damage and dysfunction of various tissues, especially the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, and nerves.
With socio-economic development, lifestyle changes (increased energy intake and reduced exercise, etc.) and an aging population, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing globally year by year, especially in developing countries, where it is expected to increase even faster (it is expected to increase by 170 percent by 2025). Diabetes is now the third noncommunicable disease to threaten people's health and lives, after cardiovascular disease and cancer. With the development of the medical level, the treatment of type 2 diabetes is also tending to diversify, let's learn about the exercise therapy of type 2 diabetes today.
- The source of Diabetes Exercise Therapy has been a long time
In fact, China is the first country to propose exercise therapy to treat diabetes, the name of the doctor's nest Yuanfang in the "source theory" proposed that thirst-quenching patients (the ancient name for diabetes) should be "one hundred steps ahead, more than a thousand, and then eat", which includes the early germination of exercise therapy. In 1926, Laurence found that exercise and insulin were better at sharing sugar reduction. In 1935, Joslin, a renowned diabetes scholar, concluded that "physical activity should be considered a cure for diabetes" and likened diet, exercise and insulin to the "troika" of diabetes. In 1969, the term "exercise prescription" was officially adopted by the WHO and is mainly used for the design of individualized sports programs, including exercise intensity, mode of movement, exercise time and frequency, and precautions. With the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes year by year, drugs and dietary therapy is slightly inadequate, type 2 diabetes exercise therapy has gradually received more attention and use.
In the three major sugar weights - exercise, insulin, sugar-lowering drugs, sugar friends are most easily self-regulating is exercise, many of the less serious sugar friends of the main way to control sugar are "hold your mouth, open your legs" - on the basis of adjusting the diet, adhere to daily regular exercise, to achieve the goal of stabilizing blood sugar. In fact, in every stage of diabetes, diet and exercise are the basis of sugar control, on this basis, if blood sugar is still not ideal, before considering increasing the drug program to help reduce sugar, rather than the end of the inverted, think that with good sugar-lowering drugs, blood sugar can be controlled. This article will introduce you to "exercise" this important sugar weight should be applied to the blood sugar balance.
- The Benefits of Exercise For Type 2 Diabetes
The benefits of exercise are many: lower blood sugar, increase insulin sensitivity, lower blood lipids, help muscle build and shape, reduce the risk of heart disease, promote blood circulation, prevent osteoporosis, reduce stress, improve quality of life, and more.
The proportion of type 2 sugar friends who are overweight and obese is high, and the study showed that the proportion of type 2 sugar friends with a BMI index ≥24.0kg/m2 was as high as 64%, and the study showed that too many fat cells were an important cause of insulin resistance, which is the main cause of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, for type 2 sugar friends, through regular exercise to reduce the body fat content is also particularly important.
- The Basic Principles of Exercise
In the easy sugar service, we found that there are many sugar friends on the understanding of the movement there are certain misconceptions, some sugar friends resist the movement, some sugar friends excessive exercise, are inappropriate practices. In the China Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Type 2 Diabetes (2017 edition), the following principles are emphasized:
Adult type 2 sugar friends at least 150min per week (e.g. 5 days a week, 30min per day) moderate intensity (50%-70% maximum heart rate, exercise with a bit of force, faster heartbeat breathing but not rapid) aerobic exercise;
Adult type 2 sugar friends should increase daily physical activity and reduce sitting time;
When blood sugar control is very poor and accompanied by acute or severe chronic complications, exercise carefully.
Because each person's physical condition and condition are not the same, for blood sugar instability or complications more complex sugar friends, in sports should listen to the views of medical personnel, blood sugar stable sugar friends, follow the above principles of exercise can be.
- Take good care of the feet and joints：
Sugar friends should strengthen the care of their feet during exercise, especially for sugars who have circulatory disorders or who feel lost in their feet due to nerve damage. Wear fit, sweaty socks and shoes, check your feet every day and report to your doctor if you find that they are not normal. Fat sugar friends in the movement should also pay attention to the protection of the lower limb joint, most sugar friends will choose fast walking, jogging this pressure on the lower extremity of the movement mode, the weight of the case, for the knee, ankle pressure is more obvious, the best choice can withstand the intensity of exercise, the use of knee protection, ankle protection, and other fixed protective measures, or choose the lower limb joint pressure less equipment exercise.
- Carry with you food that replenishes blood sugar:
For the temporary increase in the number of exercise scenes, such as physical education exams, hiking, other balance weight has not changed, only the weight of exercise significantly increased, it is easy to cause blood sugar balance imbalance, tilt to low blood sugar. In this case, you can drink some sports drinks in advance, or oral glucose tablets and other methods to increase the weight of sugar, so that balance, the best preventive meal, at least to ensure that in the case of hypoglycemia symptoms can be timely replenishment of fast sugar food.
- If insulin-promoting drugs or insulin are being used, blood sugar should be measured frequently:
Sugar friends who use sulfonylurea, Glinay insulin-promoting drugs or insulin-controlled sugars should at least measure blood sugar before and after exercise, add meals or drink sports drinks in time when blood sugar is low, correct blood sugar and then exercise. This is more convenient for sugar friends wearing dynamic blood sugar meters, who can check their blood sugar at any time to make targeted adjustments.
- Follow your doctor's instructions to regulate your diet and the dose of diabetes medication or insulin.
Sugar friends adjust the exercise program to contact the medical team in a timely manner, by the medical team according to the exercise plan to adjust the diet and drug program, give personalized meal plan and insulin program, under the premise of safety, to adapt to the individual's sports needs.
- Why do some sports raise blood sugar?
Some exercises raise blood sugar because they promote the body's release of secosteroids, such as epinephrine, which are antagonists against insulin to raise blood sugar. This situation often occurs in the morning fasting, or a high degree of excitement in the intense exercise, early morning sugar hormone in the secretion peak, directly start the exercise to further promote the communication nerve excitement, increase the sugar hormone secretion, and the higher degree of excitement of the exercise, especially when participating in sports competitions, the body will also increase the secretion of sugar hormone in response to intense physical confrontation, so we give sugar friends recommended the intensity of exercise is moderate-intensity exercise, such as walking, jogging, doing housework and other sweating but not tired exercise, can effectively consume blood sugar, without causing the body to overexcite.
- The mechanism for the treatment of type 2 diabetes by exercise therapy
Exercise can improve the body's lipid metabolism by increasing the number of insulin subjects in myoblast membranes, increasing the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin, accelerating the breakdown of adipose tissue, promoting the use of free fatty acids and cholesterol, lowering cholesterol and LDL concentrations, and increasing HDL concentration; It is of great significance to prevent the occurrence of diabetes and depression and promote the physical and mental health of patients.
How to Exercise:
Sports Type Choose:
The choice of sports mode should be considered in combination with the patient's own living environment habits and economic background, mainly choose low- and medium-intensity aerobic exercise, such as walking, jogging, swimming, tai chi and so on. Can also be combined with a variety of sports to achieve better results. Patients with lighter physical strength can choose to exercise with slightly higher intensity, and patients with severe old age and infirmity can choose low-intensity exercise.
Exercise implementation time selection is best after 60 to 120 minutes after meals, which can effectively inhibit the rise of blood sugar after meals. However, it is important to note that after-dinner exercise should avoid the peak of the effects of anti-sugar drugs to avoid hypoglycemia during exercise. The duration of exercise varies from person to person and can be gradually increased from the initial 5 to 10 minutes to about 30 minutes.
The frequency of Sports:
Regular, appropriate-intensity exercises yield lasting and visible benefits. Studies have shown that three high-intensity aerobic exercises a week for people with type 2 diabetes can increase insulin sensitivity by 46% over a two-month period, but the insulin sensitivity that has been obtained is reduced by ending exercise for three days. Therefore, the frequency of exercise should be appropriate for 3 to 5 days per week.
- Patients in the implementation of exercise therapy, should be a comprehensive assessment of their physical condition, choose their own exercise intensity exercise time and frequency;
- In the exercise process, should carry candy or dessert, at any time to prevent the occurrence of diabetes hypoglycemia;
- Exercise, diet, insulin combination treatment plan should be developed under the guidance of a doctor, and pay attention to step by step, and constantly improve, and according to the changes in the patient's condition and flexible changes, so those exercises prescriptions more suitable for patients.
- Exercise therapy for type 2 diabetes not only has a significant effect on lowering blood sugar but also can effectively prevent the development of diabetes complications. With the continuous development of medical technology, the system of sports therapy will become more and more mature, and become the most simple and easy to use in the majority of diabetic patients an important auxiliary treatment.
Six Situations Are Not Suitable for Sports:
- 1Disorders of Sugar Metabolism, It means The blood sugar on an empty stomach is above 13.9 millimoles/litre and the urine ketone body is positive, or urinary ketones that are negative but have an empty stomach of blood sugar;
- 2.Fresh Bleeding under the eye caused by diabetic retinal lesions.
- 3.Diabetic nephropathy indicates poor renal function;
- 4.suffering from severe terminal neuropathy or combined with severe autologic neuropathy;
- 5.Have new lung insysofusy or heart rate disorders;
- 6.There is gangrene in the lower limbs or feet, or skin breaks and infections.